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Title

Association between maternal use of folic acid supplements and risk of autism spectrum disorders in children.

Authors

Surén P, Roth C, Bresnahan M, Haugen M, Hornig M, Hirtz D, Lie KK, Lipkin WI, Magnus P, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Schjølberg S, Davey Smith G, Øyen AS, Susser E, Stoltenberg C.

Journal

JAMA.

Year

2013

Vol (Issue)

309(6)

Page

570-577.

doi

10.1001/jama.2012.155925.

PMID

23403681

Url

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23403681

MeSH

Adolescent
Child
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/epidemiology*
Child Development Disorders, Pervasive/prevention & control*
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Dietary Supplements
Female
Folic Acid/therapeutic use*
Humans
Male
Norway/epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Prenatal Care
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*
Regression Analysis
Risk
Vitamin B Complex/therapeutic use*
Young Adult

Keywords

한글 키워드

KMCRIC
Summary & Commentary

KMCRIC 비평 보기 +

Korean Study

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS]) in children. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: The study sample of 85,176 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002-2008; by the end of follow-up on March 31, 2012, the age range was 3.3 through 10.2 years (mean, 6.4 years). The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy, defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of ASDs. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up, 270 children in the study sample had been diagnosed with ASDs: 114 with autistic disorder, 56 with Asperger syndrome, and 100 with PDD-NOS. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41-0.90). No association was found with Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS, but power was limited. Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception was associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they do support prenatal folic acid supplementation.

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